Politics Play a Key Role in Virginia Elk Reintroduction Plan

Posted: December 3, 2012 in Agenda 21

Clark DeHart

Johnny Wills from the VDGIF is head of the management program for
Virginia’s elk herd, spoke on behalf of the Virginia Elk Reintroduction project.
He explained that although Virginia is now void of the large ungulates, during
the 1900’s elk still ranged throughout the entirety of the Eastern United
States, only to be hunted to extirpation. A one sided discussion with a lengthy
background noted several attempts for past elk reintroduction in Virginia. Wills
explained the “Peaks of Otter region once saw a small congregation of elk in the
1960’s, but were soon culled to extirpation when farmers took matters into their
own hands.” Several of Virginia’s neighboring states have seen successful
transplants of western elk herds into their former region of the Appalachians.
The Cades Cove elk herd of Kentucky and Tennessee has flourished since their
introduction in 2001 to a healthy population of around 15,000

The plan for Virginia’s new elk herd is already in
conception, but it seems to lack logic in the management of the species. After a
study on the feasibility of elk in Virginia’s environment, Julie A. McClafferty
and James A. Parkhurst discovered that the prime habitat to support the large
grazers would be Virginia’s Allegheny and Piedmont regions. “Biologically, the
facts are sound, but politically the areas are off limits.” Johnny Wills has
narrowed the search for elk habitat to the far western part of Virginia, in what
he deems the coal counties; Buchanan, Wise, Lee and Dickenson. These counties in
particular have a low population density, and large remaining tracts of forest.
The counties are eager to have the elk herd in their district, but there are
possible problems to face if reintroduction occurs.

While elk herds on
forest land and designated elk reservations is fine in the public eye, the
problem lies in the migratory behavior of the species. If the elk turn up in a
suburban town stead, the imposing animals can create danger for people and
browsing landscaped yards, becoming an immediate nuisance. In the western states
during the mating season for elk, males are known to walk through towns,
oblivious to cars and people alike. Farmers, however have a different reason to
protest the introduction of elk. In the coal counties, elk could outcompete
livestock, consuming the grass that the cattle have to eat. Being free ranging
animals, elk could wander into a farmer’s hay field, and consume the season’s
feed supply for the farmer’s livestock.

A more serious implication with
wild species introduction is the possibility of contagious disease transfer to
livestock. Two diseases are known in ungulates like elk and white tail deer, and
could have dangerous implications for wild and domestic animals alike. Chronic
wasting disease is a degenerative disease which afflicts white tail deer in
Virginia, and could be transmitted to elk. Bovine Tuberculosis is a more severe
threat to the cattle farmers around the commonwealth. If an elk with bovine TB
infects domestic cattle, our state could lose its TB free standing.

impact on humans will be more direct than through competition with cattle. Deer
already cost citizens $ 5 million a year due to deer related accidents,
introduction of elk would only increase these statistics. When the elk migrate
out of the forest and happen across a suburban backyard the conflict with humans
increase. The overabundance of white tail deer already costs the Virginia
homeowner a sum of $290 a year just because of deer. It’s already a consensus
that there needs to be a stronger management policy to deal with the deer
population, so why introduce a larger deer species?

Most biologists would
be more concerned with a second ungulate species’ impact on the health of our
local environment. With overabundant white tail deer wrecking havoc on sapling
growth, one could only imagine how a larger deer would affect the habitat. The
coal counties of Wise, Buchannan, and Dickenson have poor quality of food
resources for deer, and thus have a very small population of white tail deer.
When a habitat can barely support deer, why should elk be thrown into the

Johnny Wills explained that the driving force behind the elk
reintroduction project was politics. The idea that elk could increase tourism
and stimulate the economy is the main goal for the project, more than the
animals themselves. Groups like the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation that are
supporting the project have sided that there is benefit to recreating the former
state of the fauna in the region. Hunters have already jumped at the idea of big
game hunting in Virginia. What is a main oversight is that these elk will not be
candidates for hunting for quite some time. When asked when the herd could be
hunted Mr. Wills answered that “in a decade there will be a lottery for limited
elk licenses, but even in 30 years the population probably would still be under
limited hunting restraints,” unlike the white tail deer in

“It’s really politics behind the project which is moving it
forwards” but at the same time politics are keeping the elk project from
utilizing more suitable habitat areas. Despite the objections on each side, the
project is planned to be implemented in late December 2011. With the increasing
animosity with white tail deer, Virginia seems torn over the reintroduction
project, and hoping for the best. “It’s not a question of where or when, we know
that. Now it’s a question of how many elk we are going to get.”



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